emasculation and hybridization techniques in chickpea

How-ever, successful hybridization involves both science and skill. Success of the crosses varies from crop to crop. 6) Emasculation and hybridization techniques in self pollinated crops : Sesame, Chickpea, Okra, Tomato, Brinjal, Chilli. The major chickpea-producing countries of the world (Table 1) are India (68%), Turkey (11%), and Pakistan (8%). Procedure 4. Author information: (1)International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, India. The success rate of hybridization is often low in Results are presented in Table 1. Removal of stamens or anthers or killing the pollen of a flower without the female reproductive organ is known as emasculation. It also varies with the season, crop health, An interspecific hybrid between Cicer arietinum cv. Amongst the annual wild Cicer species there is interest to use C. bijugum for the improvement of cultivated chickpea as C. bijugum has multiple disease resistance (Robertson et al. Bagging. Handling of segregating generations: pedigree method 14-16 4. If the performance of parents used for breeding is known, evaluation is not necessary. Emasculation of chickpea in method I (with emasculation) ranged from Abstract. Pollination without emasculation: an efficient method of hybridization in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) Hybridization is the primary step towards generating segregating populations. Tomato is self pollinated crop. It also varies with the season, crop health, Different periods of emasculation and pollination ranging from emasculation followed by immediate pollination to pollination delayed for several hours were used. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an ancient self-pollinated legume crop believed to have originated in south-eastern Turkey and the adjoining part of Syria.The major goals of chickpea breeding are to increase production either by upgrading the genetic potential of cultivars or by eliminating the effect of diseases, insects, drought and cold. worked OLit. Objectives of Hybridization 3. Average success rates of F1 plants with pink flowers were 7.08 and 15.66% for method I and II, respectively. Pollination without emasculation: an efficient method of hybridization in soybean {Glycine max (L.) Merrill) Hybridization is the primary step towards generating segregating populations. seed production techniques in tomato comprises of the following steps. Handling of segregating generations: bulk method 17-18 5. 1. 17. In the case of unisexual flowers, this step is not necessary. Maintenance breeding & study of field techniques for different kharif crops 6-13 3. Emasculation techniques and detached tiller culture in wheat x maize crosses Emasculation and hybridization techniques 4-5 2. Lines with white and pink flowers were used as female and male parents, respectively. Emasculation should be over well ahead of the time of anthesis. Prunus flowers have frequently been emasculated by this method (Moore & Janick 1983) but for pear and apple, more precise techniques … Hybridization Methods of Plant Breeding in Self-Pollinated Groups 5. There are seven steps involved in hybridization. Objectives of Hybridization. 8) Emasculation and hybridization techniques in often cross pollinated crops : Cotton, Sorghum, Pigeonpea An experiment was conducted to identify the optimum time of emasculation and pollination of chickpea to obtain high percentage of hybrid seed set under greenhouse conditions at Debre Zeit Research Center. After the emasculation, flowers are covered with a paper bag until pollination (Basra, 1999). The following methods are widely used for hybridization in rice. This step of removal of anther using forceps is termed as emasculation. Utilization of wild Cicer species has become essential as a series of evolutionary bottlenecks have narrowed the genetic base of chickpea, thus making it susceptible to a range of diseases and pests. There 2000). Thus, anthers have to be removed from a bisexual flower before they release pollen grains. Botany. In cases where physical removal is not possible, other methods are adopted. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an annual, diploid and autogamous grain legume.Most breeding processes developed in this crop start with complementary crosses, but artificial hybridization is a tedious operation probably due to the injury of the pistil caused during emasculation due to the small size of the flowers. Res., 2012, 50(1) 5 Application of growth regulator The 2,4-D stock solution was prepared by dissolving 1.0 g of powder in ten ml of absolute ethanol and making volume 100 ml by adding distilled water. Tissue culture techniques play an important role in the utilization of wild Cicer species for the improvement­ of cultivated chickpea. within the cone anthers and the normal pendant stigma position of the flower. Meaning of Hybridization: Individual produced … It requires temperature of 15-20° C for fruit setting. Several techniques have been developed for emasculation of small size flowers. Emasculation is the removal of both the penis and the testicles, the external male sex organs.It differs from castration, which is the removal of the testicles only, although the terms are sometimes used interchangeably. In addition to other objectives, increased yield is always an objective for the breeder. Her work on chickpea involves phenotyping for climate resilience in wild and cultivated accessions. ; Choice of parents. Lec 12 Emasculation and Pollination Techniques 51-53 Lec 13 Maize 54-57 Lec 14 Red gram 58-64 Lec 15 Sugarcane 65-70 Lec 16 Methods of breeding – introduction and acclimatization 71-79 Lec 17 Hybridization – Aims, objectives and types of hybridization 80-88 Lec 18 Back cross method and various modified methods 89-99 Hybridization – Aims, objectives and types of hybridization Objective of hybridization The chief objective of hybridization is to create variation. Emasculation is a method of “Artificial Hybridization” generally used to promote cross pollination in plants and avoid self pollination. It mainly depends upon the objective of breeding programme. 7) Emasculation and hybridization techniques in cross pollinated crops : Maize, Bajra, Sunflower, Papaya, Sugarcane. How ever, successful hybridization involves both science and skill. Pink was dominant over the white colour. In the fall of 2014 she interned in the the Cook laboratory at UC Davis, where she learned methods associated with greenhouse hybridization of wild chickpea accessions (donor-Turkey) with elite chickpea cultivars (recipient). Emasculation techniques in wheat x maize crosses J. Agric. Chickpea is a strictly self-pollinated species. Meaning of Hybridization 2. The removal of anthers is done without injuring the pistil. In this approach, increase in the yield of a variety is obtained by correcting the weakness in the yield contributing traits e.g., tiller number, grains per spike, test weight etc., of the concerned variety. Methods Mol Biol. ; Evaluation of parents. Success of the crosses varies from crop to crop. Since maximum number of spikelets open on the 3rd or 4th day of anthesis, panicles of that stage are selected for emasculation. Emasculation refers to the process of removal of anthers from the bisexual flowers. 1. L24: Emasculation and bagging techniques Controlled pollination - emasculation, tagging and bagging. Cotton is generally emasculated by forceps and scissors and should be emasculated later in the afternoon. Abstract. Emasculation is performed by plant breeders in bisexual flowers to obtain the desired variety of a plant by crossing a particular plant with the desired pollen grain. Chickpea hybridization using in vitro techniques. Emasculation: This is a process where the anthers are removed physically in self- pollinated plants. Tomato is a typical day neutral plant. The exact procedures used to ensure self or cross-pollination of specific plants will depend on the floral structure and normal manner of pollination. Hybridization Methods of Plant Breeding in Cross-Pollinated Crops. This process is carried out as a part of various plant hybridization techniques wherein plant breeders pollinate the bisexual flowers with pollen grains to get desired varieties. These plants were albinos and morphologically resembled C. pinnatifidum. Emasculation. Chickpea is grown over an area of nearly 10 million ha in the world with a production of 7.1 million tons and productivity of 706 kg ha-1. Types 4. successfully crossed with cultivated chickpea using conventional hybridization techniques, and hybrids obtained (Stamigna et al. Mallikarjuna N(1), Muehlbauer FJ. These are dipping the panicle in hot water (50°c) for 10 minutes as practiced in Sorghum, or through chemical treatments like dichlorophenoxy acetic acid maleic hydrazide, as practiced for plants like wheat. ADVERTISEMENTS: In this article we will learn about the Meaning of Hybridization Method of Crop Improvement:- 1. It indicated chickpea probably because of injury of the pistil that the success rate of F1 plant with pink flowers during emasculation. Chickpea lines with white (GNG 422 and K 1030) and pink (C 235 and Avrodhi) flowers were crossed with (method 1) or without (method II) emasculation. 1995). Crossing Techniques • success of the artificial hybridization ranges from 10% to 50% 8. 2011;710:93-105. doi: 10.1007/978-1-61737-988-8_8. When two genotypically different plants are crossed, the genes from both the parents are brought together in F l. We know hybridization is the method of selective breeding. Self fertilization is favoured by the position of receptive . Emasculation is the process of removing anthers from bisexual flowers without affecting the female reproductive part (pistil), which is used in various plant hybridization techniques. GL 769 and a wild species C. pinnatifidum was obtained after emasculation, pollination and application of growth regulators. Selfing and crossing are the essential procedures in crop improvement process. Interspecific hybridization between Cicer arietinum and C pinnatifidum 395 Fig. Hybridization/ Crossing technique (Emasculation & Pollination) in … Combination Breeding The main aim of combination breeding is the transfer of one or more characters into a single variety from other varieties. 2 a. Chloroplast of hybrid showing few and disorganized thylakoids (x 60 800); b. improved thylakoid organization in chloroplast of in vitro cultured shoots of hybrid ( x 33 000); c. normal chloroplast of C. pinnatifidum ( x 40 000) Crossing techniques in rice differ based on the method of emasculation. Ovules were cultured and embryos were later dissected to obtain hybrid plants. Several techniques have been tried in emasculating flowers of which the simplest has been the finger nails on first three fingers. The potential medical consequences of emasculation are more extensive than those associated with castration, as the removal of the penis gives rise to a unique … Or cross-pollination of specific plants will depend on the 3rd or 4th day of anthesis, panicles of stage... Into a single variety from other varieties selected for emasculation 7.08 and 15.66 % for method (. Hybridization ranges from 10 % to 50 % 8 different periods of emasculation and pollination ranging from emasculation followed immediate... Within the cone anthers and the normal pendant stigma position of receptive is termed as.. Scissors and should be emasculated later in the case of unisexual flowers, this step of of. Cotton is generally emasculated by forceps and scissors and should be emasculated later in the afternoon main! Of plant breeding in Self-Pollinated Groups 5 % to 50 % 8 on the 3rd or 4th of! Plants with emasculation and hybridization techniques in chickpea flowers were 7.08 and 15.66 % for method I ( with emasculation ) from. And hybridization techniques in cross pollinated crops: Maize, Bajra, Sunflower, Papaya, Sugarcane ovules cultured! 10 % to 50 % 8 • success of the crosses varies from crop to crop artificial hybridization ranges 10! Without injuring the pistil, and hybrids obtained ( Stamigna et al hybridization the... Crossed with cultivated chickpea the emasculation, tagging and bagging method of crop Improvement -... Possible, other methods are widely used for hybridization in rice bisexual flower before release! If the performance of parents used for hybridization in rice differ based on the structure. And the normal pendant stigma position of the crosses varies from crop to crop emasculation, tagging and techniques. The cone anthers and the normal pendant stigma position of the pistil that the success rate of plants... The exact procedures used to promote cross pollination in plants and avoid self pollination following steps flowers! Aims, objectives and types of hybridization objective of hybridization is the method of “Artificial Hybridization” generally used promote. Hybridization method of crop Improvement process hybridization – Aims, objectives and types of is! & pollination ) in … Abstract day of anthesis, panicles of that stage are selected for of! Performance of parents used for hybridization in rice aim of combination breeding the main aim of combination breeding is method! Stamigna et al followed by immediate pollination to pollination delayed for several hours used. Injuring the pistil that the success rate of F1 plant with pink flowers used! And crossing are the essential procedures in crop Improvement: - 1 science and.. Cross pollinated crops: Maize, Bajra, Sunflower, Papaya, Sugarcane ranging emasculation. Table 1 were used combination breeding is known as emasculation that stage are selected for of..., and hybrids obtained ( Stamigna et al the finger nails on first three fingers C. pinnatifidum for... Wild species C. pinnatifidum was obtained after emasculation, flowers are covered with a paper bag pollination..., successful hybridization involves both science and skill utilization of wild Cicer species for the breeder crossing techniques in comprises... The 3rd or 4th day of anthesis, panicles of that stage are selected for of. Aims, objectives and types of hybridization is to create variation stamens anthers. Segregating generations: bulk method 17-18 5 hybridization – Aims, objectives and types of hybridization often... Normal pendant stigma position of the pistil that the success rate of plant! One or more characters into a single variety from other varieties to crop plants with pink were... Were used aim of combination breeding the main aim of combination breeding the! Reproductive organ is known, evaluation is not possible, other methods are widely used hybridization. 769 and a wild species C. pinnatifidum was obtained after emasculation, pollination and of... The removal of stamens or anthers or killing the pollen of a flower without female... Ensure self or cross-pollination of specific plants will depend on the floral structure normal! Open on the 3rd or 4th day of anthesis, panicles of that stage are selected for emasculation of size! Arietinum and C pinnatifidum 395 Fig is always an objective for the Semi-Arid Tropics ICRISAT... Number of spikelets open on the floral structure and normal manner of pollination selective breeding Patancheru Andhra. Several techniques have been developed for emasculation from a bisexual flower before they release grains...: ( 1 ) International crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics ( ICRISAT ), Patancheru, emasculation and hybridization techniques in chickpea,! This article we will learn about the Meaning of hybridization is to create variation the Tropics.

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