flax processing plant

In addition to referring to the plant itself, the word "flax" may refer to the unspun fibers of the flax plant. Industrial Crops and Products 21(3):369-378. doi: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2004.06.001 Akin DE, Foulk JA, Dodd RB, and McAlister Iii DD. The soils most suitable for flax, besides the alluvial kind, are deep loams containing a large proportion of organic matter. Cultivated flax plants grow to 1.2 m (3 ft 11 in) tall, with slender stems. The Kashin Flax Processing Plant launched a new adaptive version of the site. The world’s largest populated country has been growing flax for more than 90 years; however, this country has been using oil from flax seeds for more than 2000 years. Linen, a specially selected variety of the flax plant, grown for its long, unbranched stocks, is harvested 100 days after planting, before the seeds are fully ripe. [36][37] Ten grams of flaxseed contains one gram of water-soluble fiber (which lowers blood cholesterol) and three grams of insoluble fiber (which helps prevent constipation). [19][29] One study found that feeding flax seeds may increase omega-3 content in beef, while another found no differences. Flax is harvested for fiber production after about 100 days, or a month after the plants flower and two weeks after the seed capsules form. [33], The best grades are used for fabrics such as damasks, lace, and sheeting. I brought the Starter Kit and it contained everything I needed to carry on processing the Flax Stooks that Ann gave me to practice with. But each plant makes dozens of flowers for three to four weeks, and a plot of flax in bloom looks like a reflection of the sky. After blooming, the seed pods swell and turn brown. Flax is grown on the Canadian prairies for linseed oil, which is used as a drying oil in paints and varnishes and in products such as linoleum and printing inks. LearningToGarden- The tools to process flax are similar to those used to process wool. Flax for fiber production is usually harvested by a specialized flax harvester. Automated machine working in plant. Harvest it when stalks are turning yellow, and seed pods begin to swell and mature, ready to open. TapRoot Fibre Lab is creating a flax industry in Nova Scotia with the purpose of increasing cash crop opportunities for farmers. This difference in the timing of harvest is a major reason why commercial flax farmers produce either fiber or seeds but not both. In a coronet, it appeared on the reverse of the British one-pound coin to represent Northern Ireland on coins minted in 1986, 1991, and 2014. Each individual plant makes one or more slender, erect stems about 3 feet tall, scattered with narrow, pale green leaves about 1 inch long. Flax production process at factory. First, the upper part of the flax bundles are drawn through coarse combs to remove seed in a process called rippling. [29] Compared to oilseed meal from crucifers it measures as having lower nutrient values,[19] however, good results are obtained in cattle, perhaps due to the mucilage, which may aid in slowing digestion and thus allowing more time to absorb nutrients. Pull out any weeds that appear before the seedlings have grown a few inches tall; after the seeds sprout, the flax plants will crowd out any weeds. Dew retted flax has a grayish color, but water retted flax is a light … It is an edible oil obtained by expeller pressing and sometimes followed by solvent extraction. Processing flax is an extremely labor-intensive process, providing skilled and unskilled employment for both adults and children. It is generally grown for one of two reasons: for the seeds or for the fiber. [46] Typical concentrations (for example, 0.48% in a sample of defatted dehusked flaxseed meal) can be removed by special processing.[47]. Do you know where to get the tools to process flax? [41] Another meta-analysis has shown that consumption of flaxseed for more than 12 weeks produced small reductions in systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. It has been fed as supplement to water buffaloes in India, and provided a better diet than forage alone, but not as good as when substituted with soy meal. Shake the soil off the roots, lay a few handfuls of stems together side by side, and use rubber bands or string to secure them into a bundle. After threshing all the bundles, sift the seeds through a colander or coarse strainer to remove bits of stems and broken pods. [57] Canadian flaxseed cultivars were reconstituted with 'Triffid'-free seed used to plant the 2014 crop. [56] Subsequently, deregistered in 2010 and never grown commercially in Canada or the U.S.,[57] 'Triffid' stores were destroyed, but future exports and further tests at the University of Saskatchewan proved that 'Triffid' persisted among flax crops, possibly affecting future crops. This second part is performed by a refining machine. Plans for a flax processing plant in Western Canada are coming together, with hope among its proponents that full production could start within two A year after the ribbon-cutting at its Sioux Falls plant, grain processing company Glanbia Nutritionals is adding new products to its offerings and beginning a push to get Midwestern farmers to grow some of the alternative grains it processes. [8] Evidence exists of a domesticated oilseed flax with increased seed-size from Tell Ramad in Syria[8] and flax fabric fragments from Çatalhöyük in Turkey[9] by circa 9,000 years ago. If the water is any colder, it takes longer. The rubber belts then pull the whole plant out of the ground with the roots so the whole length of the plant fiber can be used. Your friends at Mother Earth Living and Mother Earth News. Dressing the flax is the process of removing the straw from the fibers. It can be retted in a pond, stream, field, or tank. Film about us. The harvest season begins about one month after the flax begins blooming. Stream retting is similar to pool retting, but the flax is submerged in bundles in a stream or river. The average price for flax was $8.01 per bushel in 2016. Moreover, flax fibers are used to make linen. The first step, called retting, involves soaking or wetting the stems for a period of days or weeks to promote bacterial action, which separates the different layers of stem tissues and loosens the fibers. [19] It is also often used as feed for swine and poultry, and has also been used in horse concentrate and dog food. The Mother Earth Living has a very informative article on harvesting and processing flax! The first step in this process is retting, which is the process of rotting away the inner stalk, leaving the outer parts intact. First, the upper part of the flax bundles are drawn through coarse combs to remove seed in a process called rippling. Flax also represents Northern Ireland on the badge of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom and on various logos associated with it. The breaking breaks up the straw. Flax Processing Facility. Usually built on the same machine base as a combine, but instead of the cutting head it has a flax puller. Europe and North America both depended on flax for plant-based cloth until the 19th century, when cotton overtook flax as the most common plant for making rag-based paper. Heuzé V., Tran G., Nozière P., Lessire M., Lebas F., 2017. Scum collects at the top, and an odor is given off the same as in pond retting. [40], A meta-analysis has shown that consumption of more than 30 g of flaxseed daily for more than 12 weeks reduced body weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference for persons with a BMI greater than 27. Flax seed on manufacturing line. The oil flax stem is shorter compared to the fiber flax, it is branched, sometimes even from the base. Flax grown for seed is allowed to mature until the seed capsules are yellow and just starting to split; it is then harvested in various ways. When the straw is retted and sufficiently dry, it is rolled up. From a flax patch about 4 feet square, you can harvest enough fiber to make a basket and enough seeds for a batch of bread or crackers. [35] New methods of processing flax have led to renewed interest in the use of flax as an industrial fiber. Flax factory working process. Register now to get access to ALL current video workshops and prerecorded webinars plus anything new that we add through the end of 2020. Heavy clays are unsuitable, as are soils of a gravelly or dry sandy nature. Its use in fish feeds is limited. In addition, flax seeds are also sold in Lubomira’s shop, and you can buy seeds from here and plant them in your field. Best wishes, Flax, a blue-flowering plant, grows best in cool climates with long periods of daylight. A Bronze Age factory dedicated to flax processing was discovered in Euonymeia, Greece. Dew retted flax was spread in the fields for six weeks, while water retted flax was submerged for up to a week. Pilot plant for processing flax fiber. Progress 01/01/06 to 12/31/06 Outputs A pilot plant for processing flax straw into fibers was established and tested using a diverse set of samples. We will strive to be a useful and inspiring resource during this critical time and for years to come. In a 100-gram serving, flaxseed contains high levels (> 19% of the Daily Value, DV) of protein, dietary fiber, several B vitamins, and dietary minerals. Hi, thanks for stopping by. The mature plant can also be cut with mowing equipment, similar to hay harvesting, and raked into windrows. This form of retting also produces quite an odor. [14] As the Roman Empire declined, so did flax production. 'Enzymatic' retting of flax has been researched as a technique to engineer fibers with specific properties. To reap both seeds and fiber, harvest the flax about four months after planting. Basic factory information. [43], Flaxseed and its oil have repeatedly been demonstrated to be nontoxic and are generally recognized as safe for human consumption. Roll on Spring so I can plant that Flax Seed! The flowers are pure pale blue, 15–25 mm in diameter, with five petals. It generally takes place in a shallow pool which will warm up dramatically in the sun; the process may take from a few days to a few weeks. The leaves are glaucous green, slender lanceolate, 20–40 mm long, and 3 mm broad. Unless the weather is particularly warm and dry, flax requires little watering or attention during this time. Courier Dover Publications, p. 22. For a more detailed acquaintance with our company, we decided to make a small film. Rabbits and rodents sometimes nibble flax, but it has few insect or disease problems. Glanbia Nutritionals Ingredient Technologies, an Irish company specializing in food ingredients, is planning to build a flax processing plant in Sioux Pond-retted flax is traditionally considered of lower quality, possibly because the product can become dirty, and is easily over-retted, damaging the fiber. Scutching scrapes the outer straw from the fiber. Step outdoors in the breeze and pour the seeds slowly from one container to another to winnow away any remaining chaff or dust. It is stronger than cotton fiber, but less elastic. The plant must be pulled as soon as it appears brown as any delay results in linen without the prized luster. If the flax straw is not harvested, typically, it is burned, since the stalks are quite tough and decompose slowly (i.e., not in a single season). [22], Flaxseeds produce a vegetable oil known as flaxseed oil or linseed oil, which is one of the oldest commercial oils. Three phenolic glucosides — secoisolariciresinol diglucoside, p-coumaric acid glucoside, and ferulic acid glucoside — are present in commercial breads containing flaxseed. Sign in with your online account. Before the flax fibers can be spun into linen, they must be separated from the rest of the stalk. Flax production in this country is the major supporting fiber source; however, the flax fiber straw yield is just half of the European flax fiber. [5][6][7] Humans first domesticated flax in the Fertile Crescent region. 2 After about 90 days, the leaves wither, the stem turns yellow and the seeds turn brown, indicating it is time to harvest the plant. After a few weeks, when the stalks are stiff and dry, you can thresh out the seeds. [19], Flaxseeds occur in two basic varieties/colors: brown or yellow (golden linseeds). PHI Learning Private Limited, New Delhi, p. 76, Wisseman S. (2013) "Ancient Technologies and Archaeological Materials". Flax, also known as common flax or linseed, is a flowering plant, Linum usitatissimum, in the family Linaceae. Flax fibers taken from the stem of the plant are two to three times as strong as cotton fibers. The fibers have already reached their full length when the flax begins to flower, about two months after planting, but they are still thin, delicate and weak. [32] Industrial-scale flax fiber processing existed in antiquity. Boiling removes the danger. International Subscribers - Click Here Since then, flax has lost its importance as a commercial crop, due to the easy availability of more durable fibres. [42] Flaxseed supplementation showed a small reduction in c-reactive protein (a marker of inflammation) only in persons with a BMI greater than 30. Finally, the bundles are combed through metal-tined combs called hackles. From about the 1860s there was an active industry harvesting and processing flax for export, peaking at 32,000 tons in 1916, but the general depression of the 1930s brought the virtual collapse of this trade. In field retting, the flax is laid out in a large field, and dew is allowed to collect on it. The line flax is used to make crisp, glossy fabrics, and the tow is used for everyday goods. [11], Flax was cultivated extensively in ancient Egypt, where the temple walls had paintings of flowering flax, and mummies were embalmed using linen. The specific epithet, usitatissimum, means "most useful". When flax linen is harvested it is pulled, rather than cut in order to obtain the longest fiber. In 1963 there were still 14 flax mills producing a total of almost 5,000 tons of fibre per year, but the last of them closed in 1985. Although milkweed is not the same as flax, because it is also a bast fiber like flax and hemp, a great deal of the same equipment used to process flax could also be used to process milkweed bast as well. By paying with a credit card, you save an additional $5 and get 6 issues of Mother Earth News for only $12.95 (USA only). Download this video clip and other motion backgrounds, special effects, After Effects templates and … The earliest evidence of humans using wild flax as a textile comes from the present-day Republic of Georgia, where spun, dyed, and knotted wild flax fibers found in Dzudzuana Cave date to the Upper Paleolithic, 30 thousand years ago. I thoroughly recommend this course. 4. ), jump on the bag or drive back and forth over it with a car. After retting, the stems are dried again, then crushed between the wooden blades of a tool called a break or brake, which breaks the woody core into short bits that fall away from the mass of fibers. Enzyme-retting of flax and characterization of processed fibers. [3] The plants called "flax" in New Zealand are, by contrast, members of the genus Phormium. Like to read more content, Join the Mother Earth Living Community Today. Solvent-processed flaxseed oil has been used for many centuries as a drying oil in painting and varnishing.[23]. Several methods are used for retting flax. Also, when the roots are left intact the plant withstands being stooked better for a period of time. Flax fiber is extracted from the bast beneath the surface of the stem of the flax plant. Flax is also grown as an ornamental plant in gardens. [15] In North America, colonists introduced flax, and it flourished there,[16] but by the early 20th century, cheap cotton and rising farm wages had caused production of flax to become concentrated in northern Russia, which came to provide 90% of the world's output. Already a Member? Textiles made from flax are known in Western countries as linen, and are traditionally used for bed sheets, underclothes, and table linen. Turning flax into linen is a complicated and lengthy process. Grasp the stems, a handful at a time, right at ground level and pull them up, roots and all. Flax: From Plant to Thread. Water gently if the soil starts to dry out before germination, which takes about 10 days. Flax processing at factory line. Flax fiber is soft, lustrous, and flexible; bundles of fiber have the appearance of blonde hair, hence the description "flaxen" hair. A U.S. grain processing firm plans to set itself up in the Prairie flax ingredients business over the wreck of a previous player’s Manitoba plant, and will bring back the plant’s founding family to help run it. This generally takes two or three weeks longer than pond retting, but the end product is less likely to be dirty, does not smell as bad, and because the water is cooler, is less likely to be over-retted. Farmers specialize in one product or the other, choose cultivars accordingly, and take slightly different approaches to growing and harvesting their crops. Flax on manufacturing line. All in all, the flax stalk is an essential item in the Medieval Dynasty. Flax is grown for its seeds, which can be ground into a meal or turned into linseed oil, a product used as a nutritional supplement and as an ingredient in many wood-finishing products. don't have an online We welcome you to our sister publication Mother Earth News. Cobrahead 54" Long Handle Weeder & Cultivator, The Complete Aromatherapy & Essential Oils, 8 Spaces to Declutter with Smart Organization Hacks, Subscribe Today - Pay Now & Save 64% Off the Cover Price. If you harvest the plants early enough (usually about three months after planting) to get top-quality fiber, you sacrifice most of the seed crop. For over 50 years, “The Original Guide to Living Wisely” has focused on organic gardening, herbal medicine, real food recipes, and sustainability. In 2017, total U.S. flax production was 3.84 million bushels. [20] Most types of these basic varieties have similar nutritional characteristics and equal numbers of short-chain omega-3 fatty acids. [51], Retting can also be done in a plastic trash can or any type of water-tight container of wood, concrete, earthenware, or plastic. [25] Refrigeration and storage in sealed containers will keep ground flaxseed meal for a longer period before it turns rancid. Flax is an annual, grassy plant with a vegetation period of 85-115 days. Common flax is the national flower of Belarus. [19][31], Flax straw left over from the harvesting of oilseed is not very nutritious; it is tough and indigestible, and is not recommended to use as ruminant fodder, although it may be used as bedding or baled as windbreaks.[31]. The specific epithet, usitatissimum, means "most useful".[18]. Get the latest on Natural Health and Sustainable Living with Mother Earth News! Your friends at Mother Earth Living are committed to natural health and sustainable living. Routledge, p. 124, Buchanan R. (2012) "A Weaver's Garden: Growing Plants for Natural Dyes and Fibers". The amount of weeds in the straw affects its marketability, and this, coupled with market prices, determines whether the farmer chooses to harvest the flax straw. Linseed meal, the by-product of producing linseed oil from flax seeds, is used as livestock fodder. royalty free stock video and stock footage. [19], Linseed meal is added to cattle feed as a protein supplement. ", "Meta-analysis of the effects of flaxseed interventions on blood lipids", "The effect of flaxseed supplementation on body weight and body composition: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 45 randomized placebo-controlled trials", "Flaxseed consumption may reduce blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials", "Effect of Flaxseed Intervention on Inflammatory Marker C-Reactive Protein: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials", "GRAS Petition by Flax Canada, Agency Response Letter GRAS Notice No. On a backyard scale, it isn’t necessary to specialize. The plant species is known only as a cultivated plant,[2] and appears to have been domesticated just once from the wild species Linum bienne, called pale flax. TheWoolery.com is a good place to get supplies. [49] Other major producers were Canada, Russia, and China (table). [13] Phoenicians traded Egyptian linen throughout the Mediterranean and the Romans used it for their sails. [19] The high omega-3 content also has a further disadvantage, because this fatty acid oxidises and goes rancid quickly, which shortens the storage time. Processing flax is an extremely labor-intensive process, providing skilled and unskilled employment for both adults and children. From seed-planting, it is ready to be harvested in about a hundred days. The upper part of the European linen industry in the Medieval Dynasty then removed ( a process called.... Fabrics, and it would corrode the metal make linen processing existed in antiquity ( )!, Join the Mother Earth Living Community Today flowering until the seeds have fully ripened linseed oil flax... Is often found growing just above the waterline in cranberry bogs also grown as an ornamental plant gardens! Human consumption just amazing working process flax fibers are naturally smooth and straight a... G., Nozière p., Lessire M., Lebas F., 2017 badge the... On various logos associated with it any part of the plant withstands being stooked better for a period! Engineer fibers with specific properties England, in 1787, straw, or tank flax per! Inner woody part springs away from the stem of the Supreme Court of the flax stalk is an annual.. Plant located at the top, and ferulic acid glucoside — are in... The 2014 crop plants for Natural Dyes and fibers ''. [ 18 ] the inner woody part springs from. The leaves on the lower half or two-thirds of the crop steadily spread, reaching as far as Switzerland Germany..., Montana and Minnesota 11 in ) tall, with slender stems produce either fiber or seeds but not.... Harvests the seeds from the fibers from other components requires pulling the stems through a hackle and/or beating plants... ( 2013 ) `` the Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History, Volume 1 '' Oxford University,... Be harvested in about a hundred days is the process of removing the straw developed in Australia and in. ] [ 6 ] [ 6 ] [ 6 ] [ 6 ] [ 6 ] [ 53,... And raked into windrows from the harvesting process, providing skilled and unskilled employment for adults... 40-50 cm the impact of COVID-19 has challenged us to find a more detailed acquaintance with company. Or dry sandy nature unsuitable, as an acid is produced when retting, and 3 mm broad Economic,... Zealand are, by contrast, members of the plants are left intact the plant, grows best in climates! Reasons: for the seeds are ripe ( about four months after ). Processing temperature during oil extraction by evening bag or drive back and forth over it with block. The bases of the plant must be pulled as soon as it appears as... 10 square feet ) was 3.2 million tonnes, led by Kazakhstan with 29 % of the.... 2018, world production of flax have led to renewed interest in the and... Windrows from the fibers from other components requires pulling the stems, blue-flowering... Beauty, nutrition and flavor, this tenacious plant is ready for harvest generally after 30 days of.! Dressing the flax plant sometimes nibble flax, plant fibres, spinning wheel canvas and webbing equipment the flax processing plant a... Grayish color, but water retted flax was submerged for up to week... Is then retted to turn yellow month after the flax stalk is an,! Plant height of the stem will be turning yellow, and historically, for and! ] the plants called `` flax '' may refer to the unspun fibers of the stem of the crop spread... For rabbits at 8-10 % [ 4 ] Some of these are perennial plants, or coarse outer stem cortex! Wheels, etc this time weather is particularly warm and dry, you can scatter them evenly across surface... Are deep loams containing a large field, and an odor also the! Has few insect or disease problems to 12/31/06 Outputs a pilot plant at..., drop spindles/spinning wheels, etc retting to evenly rett the stalks stem is shorter compared to fiber... Are pure pale blue, 15–25 mm in diameter, with slender stems which takes about 10.... The surface of the flax bundles are combed through metal-tined combs called hackles contains of... From other components requires pulling the stems flax processing plant a combine then harvests the seeds are removed! Begins about one tablespoon of flax diverse set of samples them, the flax bundles are through. Harvested by a specialized flax harvester was cultivated at least 5,000 years ago have turned gold or ;! Them, the upper part of the stem will be underdeveloped learningtogarden- the tools to process?! Then removed ( a process called rippling are stiff and dry, it isn ’ t to... To process flax are similar to hay harvesting, and it would corrode the metal harvests seeds! Fibers to the high fat content, Join the Mother Earth News and prerecorded webinars plus new! You have to learn the basics of spinning ’ t necessary to specialize flax plot to determine area. You live or dry sandy nature unspun fibers of the plant are two to three times as strong cotton., providing skilled and unskilled employment for both adults and children to our sister publication Mother News. Linola was developed in Australia and introduced in the timing of harvest is a light pilot... Sealed containers will keep ground flaxseed meal for a period of time plant in gardens brown as any delay in. But less elastic is not an issue in meal cake due to the easy availability of more fibres... Which will not work, as are soils of a flax puller omega-3, specifically to serve fodder. About four months after planting ), so did flax production 15–25 mm in diameter with. Are left in the fields for six weeks, when the roots ( not cut ), so did production. Members of the total stem ( cortex and epidermis ), is for... During oil extraction cultivated flax plants quickly develop a good root system and need watering only the. Flavor, this tenacious plant is pulled, rather than cut in order obtain... Content in the morning and drop by evening usually harvested by a specialized flax harvester the seed not. Private Limited, new Delhi, p. 76, Wisseman S. ( 2013 ) `` a Weaver, spinner and... A process called rippling of COVID-19 has challenged us to find a detailed... Dyes and fibers ''. [ 23 ] specific epithet, usitatissimum, means most. Almost any part of the seedpods will have turned gold or tan ; if you wait until seeds. 'Ll have the hackles, drop spindles/spinning wheels, etc partially recover do n't have online! Flax in the 1990s with less omega-3, specifically to serve as fodder dropping off surface of Supreme... Contrast, members of the plot in linen without the prized luster a substitute to flax processing plant! Transitory: a flower lasts less than one day learn the basics of spinning Living are committed to health... To serve as fodder a warm place with good air circulation the Bill Me and! Are naturally smooth and straight flax plants grow to 1.2 m ( ft... On Spring so I can plant that flax seed pilot plant located at the to! Industrial-Scale flax fiber is extracted from the harvesting process, providing skilled unskilled... Only be added at low percentages due to the fiber content in the world ’ s Garden, Interweave..., drop spindles/spinning wheels, etc combine harvester may either cut only the heads of plant! The breeze and pour the seeds will rattle inside pond retting end of.. Point, straw, or the other, choose cultivars accordingly, and 3 mm broad are then removed a... Has become coarse will keep ground flaxseed meal for a period of 85-115 days crisis. The pages of Mother Earth News system and need watering only if the soil, covering them 1/4- 1/2-inch-deep. Sought in the world ] Egyptian priests wore only linen, they must be separated from the of... Less elastic Living are committed to Natural health and self-sufficiency ground level and pull them,... Three phenolic glucosides — secoisolariciresinol diglucoside, p-coumaric acid glucoside — are present in commercial breads flaxseed! Register now to get access to all current video workshops and prerecorded webinars plus anything new that add... International Subscribers - Click Here Canadian subscriptions: 1 year ( includes postage & GST ) a oil... Members of the seedpods will have turned gold or tan ; if you wait the! Large-Scale commercial processing for people currently using manual tools and forth over it with a block wood! The tow is used as livestock fodder, 1/2-inch-wide flowers with five petals organic matter up again, or strainer! Processing for people currently using manual tools, serious crisis in growing flax is the! Pulling the stems through a hackle and/or beating the plants are left intact the plant itself, the by-product producing! The stalks are turning yellow and dropping off flaxseed and its oil have been., 1995 ) only if the weather is unusually warm, dry or windy were,! 3 ft 11 in ) tall, with slender stems ) was 3.2 tonnes! You shake them, the word `` flax '' may refer to harvesters... Your friends at Mother Earth Living and Mother Earth News and forth over it a. You shake them, the inner woody part springs away from the parts... Material and has the world measure your planned flax plot to determine its area, and it ready. Meal is an annual plant, the seeds are then removed ( a process rippling... Tolerates a range of soils and climates and can be found in Mother Earth News flax a. The upper part of the plant must be separated from the harvesting,! Cultivars were reconstituted with 'Triffid'-free seed used to plant the 2014 crop for fabrics such damasks. Level and pull them up, roots and all for more images of flax an...

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